Wednesday, February 27, 2013

New Actors

Due to the failure of state system in recent decade new actors needed to be emerged. The state system was European invention; the history of the state system was about history of extremely uneven winners and losers. In the Middle Ages, the power was shared in two levels. For all European; the Catholic Church and their Popes were powerful persons and at local level the feudalism reigned in the form of fiefdoms, baronies and principalities, all run by minor royalty who were largely independent within their own limited spheres (Strada,2003:362). These papal centrals authority and the power of loyalty were following the theory of realism but in time people needed something different. After the Peace of Westphalia established the legitimacy of secular political have raised and ended the Catholic Church’s political domination of Europe (Strada, 2003:362). Again to establish peace in the world and end the Cold War, states had signed some important treaties. For example, in the 1990s affected countries had signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NNPT), which required non-nuclear powers to pledge not to seek these weapons (Strada, 2003:362). Then lots of combined works of national leaders made important decisions that weapons are not to be used in any country. After that the world has moved towards a democratic way. The theory of democratic peace strongly supports two arguments 1) the historical record shows that democracies do not fight one another and 2) a wave of democratization has swept the globe in recent decades. And finally the new actors emerged in the state.